Tennis Elbow Could Originate in the Neck

Very useful article for people like me…

It might seem funny but tennis elbow (also known as lateral epicondylitis) could be caused by a problem in the neck. In other words, it may not be coming directly from the elbow. True lateral epicondylitis occurs as a result of local trauma and tissue inflammation. Overuse of the extensor carpi radialis brevis tendon causes microtrauma where the tendon attaches to the elbow.

That same spot along the outside of the elbow is where pain can be referred when pressure is placed on the C67 nerve root. This condition is referred to as cervical radiculopathy. The C67 nerve root leaves the spinal cord in the lower cervical spine and travels from the neck down the arm. When this nerve gets pinched or compressed, neck and arm pain can develop with pain traveling down to the elbow and below.

This may be the first study to show that elbow pain occurs as a result of muscle weakness because the C67 spinal nerve is compromised. The elbow pain and dysfunction aren’t caused by local microtrauma of the tendon at all but from altered muscle function as a result of the cervical radiculopathy. When nerve innervation of the muscles is interrupted, then weakness can make even everyday activities seem like overuse resulting in what looks like traditional lateral epicondylitis.

Making the differential diagnosis is important because the treatment differs from trauma-induced (overuse) tennis elbow and cervical radiculopathy. Instead of just treating painful elbow symptoms locally (at the elbow), efforts are directed toward the neck as well. Unnecessary surgery can even be avoided.

Out of 102 patients involved in this study, all had a confirmed diagnosis of cervical radiculopathy. Two-thirds also had tennis elbow. The tip-off that it was linked with the cervical radiculopathy (neck) was the fact that the symptoms of elbow pain, weakness, numbness and tingling were present in both arms. MRIs confirmed pathology in the cervical spine. EMGs and nerve conduction studies ruled out local nerve entrapment at the elbow.

The authors concluded that lateral epicondylitis is more common with cervical radiculopathy than was previously recognized. Anyone with tennis elbow should be evaluated carefully to look for underlying cervical radiculopathy. Women are affected more often than men. When cervical radiculopathy is present, symptoms of tennis elbow can be present on just one side but it’s more often the case that symptoms are bilateral (present in both elbows).

When lateral epicondylitis occurs as a result of cervical epicondylitis, treating it with traditional tennis elbow therapy won’t resolve the symptoms. That’ another clue that something more than tennis elbow is the problem. A comprehensive treatment program for both the cervical radiculopathy and the lateral epicondylitis is needed to resolve all symptoms.

A physical therapist will evaluate the individual and design a program specific for that person. Most likely the plan of care will include postural and strengthening exercises and manual therapy to restore normal neck alignment and movement. If needed, nerve mobilization techniques can be applied to help the affected nerves slide and glide smoothly. Neuromuscular training during daily activities and while performing work duties are incorporated until the individual can return to normal function.

Buy to Let: Ltd Company v Personal Investment

Extremely useful post by Mark –

Posted on 


One of the most frequent questions asked by landlords is whether to buy investment property in their own name or through a ltd company.

It’s a great question and there is no simple answer.

It will depend on a number of factors surrounding the particular circumstance of the buyer such as how long the properties will be owned for, when to extract the cash, how much income the investor wants to extract and what other income sources they may have.

Whilst Im not an accountant, have no formal qualifications in this area and therefore can’t offer Property Investment Tax Advice I can talk about my experiences and how this has affected me as a property developer/investor.

Lots of our Progressive delegates have found these Property Investment Tax Tips useful.

Before we go into any details about should it be a Property Investment company or individual lets set the scene. The majority of investors buy property in their personal names because there are less hurdles to jump over.

The vast majority of buy to let lenders will only lend to people who buy properties in their own name and therefore for those starting out this will be the determining factor that will make the decision easy.

Buy to Let mortgages are designed for people who are earlier in their investing journey and can be simpler to obtain. Commercial Lenders/mortgages are more flexible in this regard, usually being available for property investment through ltd company, LLPs, Personal names or even trusts.

You see when you buy property through ltd company, this is seen to have a separate legal status to individuals.

So when you search on Land Registry, the company’s name will appear as the owner rather that the individual’s.

This can be useful if you want to keep your details private and might be useful in protecting your personal credit status against utility providers who register late payments for bills you haven’t received and other civil claims.

But owning in a Ltd company/LLP will mean you have to publish publicly available financial accounts on your portfolio, which whilst not detailed when small will become quite clear as the size of your company/portfolio grows and the reporting requirements increase.

Personal Guarantee…
Mortgage lenders will often ask for a personal guarantee (some probably wont such as Lloyds) if you own the property investment through ltd company meaning that whilst you protect yourself personally from other creditors you are personally liable for all debts to the mortgage lender anyway so this does not change by having a Ltd company.

If you want the benefits of limited liability but want to use the personal tax regime try using LLPs, this is what i do as I feel it gives the best of everything.

You only need one shareholder to purchase through a ltd company so you can hold the only share and still be the sole owner. And if you’re a shareholder you are of course entitled to the share of the profit and this will be paid out in dividends.

You don’t need to own a vast property portfolio to benefit from a corporate structure, one property is enough.

When you have the property investment through ltd company you pay corporation tax which is likely to be around 20% of the profit generated (but not drawn out) of the business.

Should you leave all of the profits within the company this the only tax you will be liable to pay on profits. For those who don’t want to draw any (or much) of the funds personally to create a personal income this can be very useful and offers a definite advantage over owning property personally.

If you are like me and like to reinvest profits to create bigger profits the compounding effect of only paying 20% tax over time is huge. With some paying 40% tax on their rental income profits you could potentially generate a yearly tax saving of 20% which would snowball into big numbers if consistently reinvested over many years.

When owned personally, any property income would be taxed in its entirety every tax year giving no ability to defer.

Personal Use…
But the story changes if you want to draw these profits out as an income for personal use. If all the profits were drawn out in the form of dividends on a yearly basis you would end up paying around the same level of tax as if you owned the properties personally because whilst Limited Companies will pay Corporation Tax at 20%, and basic rate (20%) income tax payers wont pay tax on the dividends they receive, higher rate (40%) income tax payers then pay tax on dividends meaning there is little difference between owning personally or doing the property investment through ltd company if you draw all the profits in dividends.

“Compound interest really is the 7th wonder of the world, and I love it!”
For those who only want to draw a portion (rather than all) of their profits out of their Ltd company the snowball effect of the tax saved and reinvested could be huge in years to come.

Disposing the Asset…
When you come to sell a property rather than paying 18% (basic rate tax payer) or 28% (higher rate taxpayer) capital gains tax for properties held in your own name the ltd company would pay 20% corporation tax and you would then be subject to the same tax on dividends outlined above for higher rate taxpayers.

This coupled with the fact that you get no personal capital gains tax allowance (The first £11,100 each so £22,200 if you own it with your wife/husband/someone else of gains where you pay no capital gains tax) often means Capital gains is tax lower for properties owned in your own name rather than the tax regime afforded to Ltd Companies.

So if you are likely to sell a property every few years you are better to own it personally to reduce your capital gains tax bill.

Should this become too frequent however (say more than 1 a year) HMRC will claim you are property trading and charge you income tax anyway. An important consideration when deciding whether to have a Property Investment company or individual.

Remortgaging your buy to let investment
Another major benefit of owing properties personally and not doing the property investment through ltd company is as follows: Remortgage money is tax free.

Should you remortgage a property in your own name the cash would come to you and could be used for any purpose, no tax would be due until you sold the propert(ies).

Lets say you purchased 10 houses for £100k each or £1m. In 30 years they are worth £4M in total, you remortgage them over the years and take out £3M in remortgage cash – as this is borrowed money there is no tax due and these funds can be spent on whatever you want.

When you die it is only the remaining equity which is taxed (£1M in this example as long as the other funds have been gifted to others such as children or spent) meaning you have avoided paying tax on the £3M you released over the years, an amazing strategy – obviously this is an extreme example and you might want to only follow it on some properties as you will have a big tax bill should you have to sell your properties in your lifetime!

Should you own these properties in a Ltd company you would have to extract the remortgage money through Salary (if your company didn’t have enough profits to support dividends at this level, as is likely) which would mean huge income tax and national insurance, so it wouldn’t work. So a definite score to owning personally.

Capital Allowances…
Rob and I also like to claim capital allowances which are allowances on plant and machinery items on purchases of commercial buildings. Typically you get about 20% of the purchase price of such properties offset against your personal income (from any source) up to £50k.

So if you purchased a property for £300k you might be able to claim £60k in allowances, for someone that earns £100k a year as a salary you could use sideways loss relief up to £50k this would reduce their personal income by around £50k meaning that they pay their income tax on £50k rather than £100k which would usually be paid at 40%.

Should put the property investment through ltd company you will only be offsetting 20% corporation tax (and couldn’t offset it against tax on dividends) which is a definite disadvantage,

What’s the way to go?
So to conclude, which is better, a Property Investment company or individual? I think you can see that it depends who you are and what you want to do.

You may like us have a mixture of owning properties personally, within Ltd companies and LLPs and your decision will affect the amount of Property investment Tax you may massively so its worth spending time on this. What I do know is that It is rarely worth transferring properties out of your name into Ltd companies/LLP or visa versa as you will be liable for stamp duty and capital gains tax based on the gain you have enjoyed at the time of the transfer.

If you want to change your strategy just do it for future purchases.

Its important that you consult an accountant for Property investment Tax Advice before you make the final decision as your individual circumstances such as your portfolio, other income, age etc will affect your decision.

A Simple Explanation of How Shares Move Around the Securities Settlement System

A very useful Article on Securities Settlement Process

Richard Gendal Brown

I explained here how money moves around the banking system and how the Bitcoin system causes us to revisit our assumptions about what a payment system must look like. In this post, I turn my attention to securities settlement: if I sell some shares to you, how do they actually move from my account to yours? What is actually “moving”? What do I mean by “account”? Who is involved? What are the moving parts? 

I have argued for some time that the Bitcoin system is best regarded as a global, decentralized asset register and that some of the assets it could register, track and transfer could be securities (stocks and bonds). In this post, I go back to basics to explain what actually happens behind the scenes today and use that to think through the implications should schemes such as or MasterCoin gain traction. I’ve discussed these systems…

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